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Hydrogen “General”

Hydrogen is the simplest and lightest chemical element in the periodic table. It is colorless, odorless and tasteless. Hydrogen is also the most abundant element in the universe.

Hydrogen consists of an atom with one electron and one proton in the nucleus. It has no neutrons, making it an isotope called protium. However, there are also other isotopes of hydrogen that have neutrons in their nucleus, such as deuterium and tritium.

Hydrogen is available in many different forms, including gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen and metallic hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen is often used as fuel in fuel cells because it burns very efficiently and cleanly and only emits water vapor.

Hydrogen also plays an important role in cosmic chemistry and astrophysics, as it was the first element in the universe to be created during the Big Bang.

In industry, hydrogen is often used as a raw material for the production of chemical compounds such as ammonia and methanol. It is also used in metallurgy and as fuel for rockets.

Hydrogen is also considered a potential replacement for fossil fuels because when burned it only produces water vapor and does not release harmful emissions such as carbon dioxide or nitrogen oxides.

H2O

1

High energy density

H2O

4

NO CO2 emissions at use 

H2O

2

Versatilityige Applications

H2O

5

Long lifetime

H2O

3

Low noise development

H2O

6

Independent of fossil energies

What types of hydrogen are there?

Green Hydrogen: Green hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water using renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy or hydroelectric power. Since no fossil fuel is used in its production, green hydrogen produces no CO2 emissions and is therefore considered environmentally friendly.

Blue hydrogen: Blue hydrogen is produced by steam reforming natural gas, producing CO2 as a byproduct. In order to reduce CO2 emissions, the resulting CO2 is usually captured and stored underground.

Grey hydrogen: Gray hydrogen is produced by steam reforming natural gas without any carbon capture measures. Therefore, the production of gray hydrogen is associated with high CO2 emissions.

Brown hydrogen: Brown hydrogen is produced by processing brown coal. The production of brown hydrogen leads to high CO2 emissions and is therefore considered very harmful to the environment.

Turquoise Hydrogen: Turquoise hydrogen is produced by splitting methane using renewable energy. This method enables the production of hydrogen with low CO2 emissions.

Violet Hydrogen: Violet hydrogen is produced by thermally splitting methane, producing only hydrogen and solids as end products. There are no CO2 emissions when producing purple hydrogen.

Hydrogen itself has no color as it is a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas.

DATA, FIGURES AND FACTS

Hydrogen is used worldwide as an energy source and has become increasingly important in recent years. According to a study by the International Energy Agency (IEA), around 115 million tons of hydrogen were produced worldwide in 2020. About 95% of it is made from fossil fuels, while the rest is obtained by electrolysis of water using renewable energy.

Most of the hydrogen produced is used to produce ammonia, methanol and refined products such as gasoline and diesel. The use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation such as cars, trains and ships is still in its early stages. In 2020, only around 11,200 hydrogen vehicles were in use worldwide, while the number of hydrogen filling stations was around 570.

However, experts predict a significant increase in hydrogen demand over the next 30 years. The IEA expects global hydrogen production to rise to around 530 million tonnes per year by 2050, with up to 40% of this could come from electrolysis of water using renewable energy.

The use of hydrogen in industry and the transport sector is particularly promising. In industry, hydrogen could help reduce CO2 emissions by replacing fossil fuels. In the transport sector, hydrogen can provide an alternative to battery-powered vehicles, particularly for heavy trucks, ships and aircraft.

However, expanding hydrogen infrastructure is challenging as it requires significant investments in production facilities, pipelines and filling stations. The IEA estimates that around $17 billion will need to be invested in expanding hydrogen infrastructure by 2030 to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement.

Overall, global hydrogen demand is expected to rise sharply over the next 30 years, particularly in industry and the transport sector. However, expanding the hydrogen infrastructure will remain a challenge and requires significant investments.

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